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This turned out to be a sound decision in the long term, as today my colour pictures still seem as bright and crisp as when I took them nearly 40 years ago. Strangely enough, I never did win any photographic competitions with pictures of trains. Trees, sunsets and semi-clad young ladies seemed more popular with the judges! Now in my early twenties and armed with a new Pentax camera, I took a renewed interest in recording the changing railway scene, this time in colour as well as black and white.

And where better to start than on my own doorstep Nearest is the Redheugh Bridge eventually demolished in and replaced with a new concrete structure ; beyond is the King Edward Bridge of with a Class 47 heading an up express out of Newcastle; then the other railway and road bridge, the famous High Level designed by Robert Stephenson and opened in ; next is the low level Swing Bridge of ; and finally the iconic Tyne Bridge of The problem with including the whole scene, of course, meant that the trains were usually too far away to identify the locomotives!

I always had the impression that the locals took this dramatic panorama for granted. This view above shows trains on both railway bridges - or rather a light engine, in the case of the Class 47 on the King Edward, with No Flying Scotsman in the background crossing the High Level with a 'Special' to Newcastle in September Another 47 in action is No below coming off the Newcastle end of the High Level on 4th May Work on a new railway bridge for the forthcoming Metro system began in , and by June the following year the two parts of the deck were getting close together, as seen in this shot above of a Class 37 heading north with coal empties on the King Edward.

No The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry has just come to rest under a fortuitous shaft of light with a terminating train from Kings Cross on 5th August above. At the time this was the most southerly of the three through platforms at Newcastle; as part of the redevelopments in connection with electrification work a new island platform has since been constructed on the left.

Another terminating train on the same day below , this time from Liverpool headed by No , stands alongside No The Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire blimey, what a mouthful - it doesn't trip off the tongue as easily as Nimbus or Ballymoss, does it?!

The new order, on 31st May ! A newly-introduced 'InterCity ' HST is approaching with an up express from Edinburgh, about to pass No heading in the opposite direction. The first station out of Newcastle was Manors. The first of two views at the latter station below sees No heading towards Newcastle with empty stock from Heaton carriage sidings in , also giving a good view of the station infrastructure which has now disappeared. Also heading for Newcastle is No above.

Although the locomotive has the 'express passenger' headcode already set up, the lack of heads at the carriage windows would suggest that this is another empty stock train from Heaton. And here's a view of Manors North in its final years of operation below , looking south towards the junction at Manors East. A DMU is about to leave for the short hop back to Central Station on the final leg of its circular out-and-back journey via the coast on 27th June You can almost hear the 'Deltic roar' and smell the fumes!

Shortly after passing Manors, trains would cross the Ouseburn Viaduct. I was drawn to this viewpoint showing the viaduct in the background below by the opening credits for the s TV comedy programme 'Whatever Happened to the Likely Lads?

What appears to be a light engine heading towards Heaton is actually a Class 40 with a train of low wagons, or perhaps a ballast train. A close-up above from the adjacent road bridge Byker Bridge shows No making for Newcastle with a parcels train. The builder's plate on the ironwork directly below the locomotive shows details of the new viaduct which replaced the original wooden structure of Summer clothes, some destined for the beach, perhaps, seem the order of the day as passengers board a coast-bound DMU at Heaton in June This was another station which has since closed, the replacement rail service now provided by the nearby Metro station at Byker.

Passing the station in the opposite direction above is No with an up express the following month. Back to the bridges again for some pictures south of the Tyne.

I found the area bounded by the triangle of lines at the Gateshead end of the King Edward Bridge a fascinating place and relatively undiscovered by photographers.

Turning to the right sees No above the pigeon lofts as it heads light engine towards nearby Gateshead depot. Below the arch lie the contents of countless thousands of locomotive smokeboxes and ashpans in the area known locally as 'the ash heaps'. No doubt over the years countless thousands of young boys would have gained access to the back of Gateshead sheds by this route which involved a steep climb but avoided the watchful eye of authority! Immediately after crossing the bridge main line trains would turn right, as shown in this view below of No Ballymoss at King Edward Bridge Junction.

Accelerating south is St. One of my earliest colour slides, it was taken on 30th July when the locomotive had lost the 'D' from its original number but before the TOPS system was introduced, when it became With major road construction work in progress in the background No The Durham Light Infantry heads south through the Gateshead suburbs in July below.

By the end of November that year a new retaining wall was in place prior to a road bridge being built at this point, where I managed to capture a 'glint' shot of No above slowing in readiness for the curve over the King Edward Bridge with a down express. No pictures of trains on Tyneside would be complete without some examples at Low Fell, the next location to the south, where it all began for me back in By June the exchange sidings for the Team Valley Trading Estate had fallen into disuse, as shown in this view of No passing the weeds with an Anglo-Scottish express below.

The redundant loading gauge for the sidings was still hanging just to provide a frame for this shot above of No with a southbound Royal Mail train. Earlier that year there had been another freight train derailment at the junction - the second one here, to my knowledge. The previous incident had been in Perhaps this was the final straw, because that summer the crossing was removed and replaced with a new one a hundred yards or so south of the road bridge.

This view above shows the same spot at the end of August as No works a ballast train past the site. Work on the new junction was in full swing in June as No passed the pw gang with an up express below.

Low Fell bridge in the background was replaced when electrification work on the ECML reached here in , and yet another link with the past was gone. A final view at Low Fell that year sees No leaning to the curve on the approach from the south, with the floodlighting towers of Tyne Yard in the background.

Occasionally engineering work usually at weekends would necessitate diversions away from the main lines, providing opportunities for photography in different locations. Deltic No Nimbus is turning left at the southern end of the King Edward Bridge on 2nd November below and will be heading east through Gateshead to take the Leamside diversionary route at Pelaw, to rejoin the ECML further south.

On a similar working No has just crossed the bridge above and is passing Gateshead depot with an up express on 27th July With only one engine apparently in action, No St. Paddy accelerates through the eastern outskirts of Gateshead with a diverted up express on 9th March below.

Across the river the skyline is dominated by Newcastle Civic Centre, still there today, unlike the coal merchant's sidings on the left which have long-since disappeared. The scene at Pelaw above of No taking the Leamside line has changed dramatically since this picture was taken in - the flyover carrying the Metro trains to South Shields and Sunderland now blocks the view completely, and the Leamside line itself has been closed and is currently 'mothballed' for possible use in the future.

The following chapter features a selection of shots I took during a five-day visit to the Rheine to Emden line in West Germany in As a way of thanking our genial West German hosts all these years later the photo captions have been translated into German, courtesy of Google Translation - here - is this a first, I wonder?

This was one of the last steam-worked main lines in Europe, with many of the passenger trains hauled by oil-fired 3-cylinder s; iron ore trains worked south from the port at Emden by big 3-cylinder oil-fired and coal-fired s; and virtually everything else handled by oil-fired s. The next morning we travelled by train across to Germany behind two different NS Netherlands Railway electric locos and one DB German Federal Railway diesel, reaching Rheine around midday, for a visit to the steam depot about two miles away by coach.

This was the first working steam shed I had been to since the final days of BR steam in August - the atmosphere, the smell, the sheer scale of it all! It embraced all the things which the preservation scene back home could not hope to emulate. As a trade-off the locomotives we saw were mostly 'well-used' as to be expected in a normal working environment , unlike the sparkling examples normally to be seen on most of Britain's 'heritage railways' to use a modern term.

Examples of all four of the Classes we expected to see were 'at home' that day, although the 'stars of the show', three of the Pacifics, were not in very photogenic positions. This is the view below across the turntable at Rheine shed - what a pity that the engines were not facing the other way round! Never mind, unlike on BR the DB tenders helpfully displayed the number of the loco attached to them.

Second and fourth from the left are Pacifics. Als Folge waren die Lokomotiven sahen wir meist "gut genutzt" was in einem normalen Arbeitsumfeld erwarten , im Gegensatz zu den sehr sauber Beispiele normalerweise auf den meisten der britischen 'Museumsbahnen' gesehen werden auf einem modernen Gebrauch Begriff. Wir haben gesehen, Beispiele für alle Arten von Lokomotiven wir erwartet hatten, obwohl die "Stars der Show", drei der ' 'Lokomotiven, waren nicht in sehr fotogen Positionen.

Dies ist die Ansicht unten auf der Drehscheibe im Bw Rheine - schade, dass die Motoren wurden nicht vor den anderen Weg! A couple of the s pose for the camera above , whilst below is one of my few shots of one of the coal-burning s. Behind it are two tenders with painted inscriptions, no doubt indicating 'for scrap' in German. In fact, the whole siding has the air of withdrawn locos - shades of Carnforth ! Dahinter sind zwei Angebote mit gemalten Inschriften, wahrscheinlich Angabe 'für Schrott' in deutscher Sprache.

Here's a rear view of an above , the oil-burning version of the , together with another The station was 'under the wires' and was a changeover point for most of the passenger trains which arrived from the south behind electric locomotives. Although the main focus was on steam I couldn't resist this shot below of an elderly electric No , which was waiting to restart a southbound express after relieving a Pacific.

Hier ist eine Rückansicht einer ' ' oben , das Öl-brennende Version des 1E, zusammen mit einem anderen '' 1D1. Nachdem wir nach Rheine Station zurückgegeben hatten wir ein paar Stunden zu warten, bevor der Zug zu unserem Hotel in Lingen, ca.

Die Station war "unter den Drähten 'und war ein Umschlagpunkt für die meisten Personenzüge, die aus dem Süden hinter Elektrolokomotiven angekommen.

Obwohl das Hauptinteresse war auf Dampf Ich konnte nicht widerstehen dieses Foto unten von einem älteren elektrische Lokomotive Nr. A level crossing just north of the station was a good spot to see this with a heavy goods train above. A short walk further on saw the end of the overhead wires where I photographed a tender-first below with another freight. Ein Bahnübergang eine kurze Strecke nördlich des Bahnhofs war ein guter Ort, um diese ' 'mit einem schweren Güterzug oben zu sehen.

Nach einem kurzen Spaziergang weiter erreichte ich das Ende der Oberleitungen, wo ich einen zart-first ' ' unten fotografiert mit einem anderen Güterzug Although not all of the passenger trains north from Rheine were steam-hauled, we were pleased to find this above was in charge of ours.

The next view below shows it after arrival at Lingen - unfortunately the cast DB plate on the cabside has disappeared. The lady with the shopping is no doubt unaware that these locomotives were living on borrowed time, and steam passenger workings would cease the following year Obwohl nicht alle der Personenzüge nördlich von Rheine wurden von Dampflokomotiven gezogen, waren wir erfreut zu sehen, diese ' ' oben war für uns.

Die Dame mit den Einkaufstüten ist wahrscheinlich nicht bewusst, dass diese Lokomotiven wurden für das geliehene Zeit leben, und Dampf Personenzüge würde zu einem Ende kommen im folgenden Jahr.

And here's the view from the hotel above , just across the road from Lingen station! An is arriving with a northbound express, passing a preserved T loco on the station forecourt, together with a nice selection of German cars. The following day was a 'free day', so several members of our party opted to travel the 12 miles or so further north to Meppen.

In the event our train was diesel-hauled, and by an accident of bad-timing we passed a double-headed ore train on the way there. After we arrived at Meppen here's a shot of again, pulling away south from the station below - this was the loco which had hauled our train from Rheine to Lingen the previous day.

AN ' 'Lokomotive ist mit einem nach Norden express anreisen, vorbei an einem erhaltene Lokomotive auf dem Bahnhofsvorplatz, zusammen mit einer schönen Auswahl an deutschen Autos. Der folgende Tag war ein "freier Tag", so einige Mitglieder unserer Partei beschlossen, die 20 km weiter nördlich nach Meppen reisen.

Wir waren enttäuscht, dass unser Zug von einer Diesellok gezogen wurde, und durch einen Unfall von bad-Timing passierten wir eine Eisenerz-Zug mit zwei Dampflokomotiven auf dem Weg dorthin zog. Passing Meppen non-stop is with a northbound express above.

South of the station the line crossed a tributary of the River Ems, which was a pleasant place to wait between trains, where I captured this below heading north with iron ore empties for Emden.

Vorbei Meppen ist keine mit einem nach Norden express oben. Südlich der Station die Linie überquerte ein Nebenfluss der Ems, die ein angenehmer Ort, um zwischen den Zügen, wo ich fotografierte diese ' ' unten nach Norden in Richtung Emden mit einer leeren Eisenerz Zug warten war Heading in the opposite direction above is this with a southbound express.

After a successful session photographing by the lineside we returned to Lingen behind another Pacific No , although it was late in the day and I wasn't able to successfully photograph it. That evening there was a terrific thunderstorm after dark.

Standing on the footbridge at the north end of Lingen station, with iron ore trains headed by big s passing below to the accompaniment of lightning flashes was quite a memorable experience! The next day was our final one in Germany, with a free morning to ourselves. Here's a shot below of an passing under the footbridge with iron ore empties heading north. Unterwegs in die entgegengesetzte Richtung oben ist dies ' 'mit einem nach Süden express.

An diesem Abend gab es ein furchtbares Gewitter nach Einbruch der Dunkelheit. Der nächste Tag war unsere letzte einer in dem Land, und wir hatten einen freien Morgen. The oil-burning locos had a distinctive smell which lingered in the air as the sound of the exhaust faded into the distance! Our journey back to Rheine that afternoon was by DMU, which was a bit disappointing, although we were able to witness more Pacific action before we had to head for home. This had arrived behind electric loco which is just appearing on the right of the picture to make way for it.

Ich entdeckte einen ruhigen Ort neben einem kleinen Kanal im Norden von Lingen, wo ich fotografiert No beschleunigt vom Bahnhof entfernt oben mit einem nach Norden express. Die Öl-brennende Lokomotiven hatten einen unverwechselbaren Geruch, der in der Luft hing, als der Klang der Auspuffanlage in die Ferne verblasst!

Unsere Reise zurück zu jenem Nachmittag Rheine war von Diesel-Zug, die wir dachten, war ein bisschen enttäuschend, obwohl wir in der Lage, mehr Dampflokomotiven in Aktion zu sehen, bevor wir in das Vereinigte Königreich zurückkehren musste waren.

Keine fotografiert wurde nördlich von Rheine Bahnhof unten , bereit, einen Zug in Richtung Norden ziehen. Dieser hatte sich hinter elektrische Lokomotive Nr.

Overall, it had been a fantastic five days, although I was slightly disappointed in not being able to photograph a double-headed ore train - but hey, that's just a minor gripe! Das letzte Foto oben zeigt die Dampflok den Bahnhof verlassen, mit einigen Mitgliedern unserer Partei auf der Plattform auch unter ihrem letzten Bilder von der Tour. Insgesamt war es eine fantastische 5 Tage, obwohl ich etwas enttäuscht war ich nicht in der Lage gewesen, ein Eisenerz Zug von zwei Lokomotiven gezogen fotografieren.

The few photographs I took were mainly record shots at station platforms, such as the view below at Exeter St Davids on 8th July, with Magnificent alongside D Western Empress. I had just travelled behind D from Taunton one of ten runs with 'Westerns' that week and the 'Warship' was waiting to head for London Waterloo via Salisbury.

One of the more interesting of them, perhaps, shows D Western Musketeer coupled to at Dawlish on 29th May above. By this date the Class 50s were being reallocated to the Western Region, displaced from the West Coast Main Line by electrification north of Crewe earlier that month. Sunny days beside the seaside really deserve colour photography, so I returned to the West of England twice more in the s with Kodachrome film in my trusty Pentax; the pictures which follow were taken on these visits in May and June The 'Westerns' were still going strong in , although Class 50s were beginning to take charge of many of the top-link workings.

By the last of them had bowed out, bringing to an end nearly twenty years of the various diesel-hydraulic classes on the Western Region. I always regarded Exeter as the gateway to the West of England, and the first of the colour pictures below shows D Western Centurion about to leave St Davids station for London Paddington as arrives with a West of England express from the north.

A similar inter-regional working has arrived at Exeter behind above as D Western Ranger stands in the centre road. Back to the London end of the station below as the driver of a sparkling clean D Western Emperor chats to fellow railwaymen as he waits for the road with a train for Paddington. Western Campaigner has just got the signal to proceed near Exeter St Thomas station above with a train of china clay wagons. This is another loco which appears to have had a recent repaint, including the distinctive cast numberplate where the 'D' has been painted out although I still entered it in my notebook as D South of Exeter the railway skirts the wide estuary of the River Exe past Starcross then hugs the coast round to Teignmouth via Dawlish, a beautiful stretch of line much-photographed over the years.

At Starcross a building originally constructed to house one of the pumping stations for Brunel's original 'atmospheric railway' still stands, seen on the left below as passes the station with a westbound express. I understand that the building is now open as a museum, with various items from the atmospheric line - not one of Brunel's successes, it must be said.

At Dawlish above I photographed and double-heading a train for the north past a fine selection of s cars. I found the line at Teignmouth the most photogenic on the coastal section. East of the station the railway runs alongside the seawall, where is approaching from the north below.

Heading in the opposite direction comes with the Penzance to Paddington up 'Cornish Riviera Ltd' above. I thought the Class 50s would have had the top-link duties such as this express all to themselves by this date, but I saw the same train still headed by a 'Western' on other occasions that week.

A telephoto shot gives a good view of the coast below as D Western Duke skirts the water's edge on the approach to Teignmouth station from the east. Looking the other way at ground level towards the station above gives us this view of another 'Peak' No with a special working, if the headcode is showing correctly.

The road bridge in the background of the previous picture provided a convenient frame in which to photograph Royal Engineer above heading west. Turning left under the same arch gives this view of D Western Marquis slowing for the station stop below. Climbing up to the road above me provided this scene of D Western Pathfinder above with another up express.

The next station to the west is Newton Abbot, where I photographed D Western Venturer with a stone train below passing through the station. I entered this in my notebook as a china clay train, but surely the wagons would have been covered if that had been the case?

Das Gebäude wird flankiert von zwei weiteren Wolkenkratzern, die zehn Jahre später entstanden sind und beide Meter hoch sind: Die Anlage, die mit einer Höhe von ,36 Metern bis Anfang das höchste Riesenrad der Welt war, sollte bereits zum Jahreswechsel fertiggestellt werden. Aufgrund von Sicherheitsmängeln ist die Konstruktion aber erst einige Wochen später in Betrieb genommen worden. Die Einweihung erfolgte am 8.

Mai durch Königin Elisabeth II. Das Sperrwerk besteht aus zehn schwenkbaren Toren. Um den Schiffsverkehr nicht zu behindern, sind sie im offenen Zustand auf den Boden der Themse abgesenkt.

Die Millennium Bridge bietet seit dem Der Schall wird hier durch die gebogenen Wände immer wieder zurück in das Innere des Rings reflektiert, sodass ein geflüstertes Wort auf die andere Seite der Kuppel getragen werden kann. Steigt man bis zur Spitze hinauf, so gelangt man auf die Golden Gallery, mit der Möglichkeit einer Aussicht über London. Unter der Kirche befindet sich eine weitläufige Krypta , in der zahlreiche bedeutende Persönlichkeiten der britischen Geschichte beigesetzt sind.

Es ist die Pfarreikirche des britischen Parlaments. Traditionell werden hier die Könige von England gekrönt und beigesetzt. Die Stiftskirche des Kollegiatstifts St. Peter, Westminster gehört zur Kirche von England , ist aber aufgrund ihrer Funktion keiner Diözese zugehörig, sondern Eigenkirche royal peculia der britischen Monarchie.

Der Haupteingang befindet sich an der Westseite. Im Mittelschiff liegt das Grab des Unbekannten Soldaten. Den Gefallenen beider Weltkriege wird auch in der St. Im linken nördlichen Querschiff sind zahlreiche berühmte britische Staatsmänner bestattet, unter anderem William Pitt , Palmerston , Benjamin Disraeli und William Gladstone.

In der Mitte befindet sich der Sarg des gestorbenen Königs. Dahinter steht der Krönungsstuhl, in dem sich bis der Stein von Scone befand. Auf diesem Stein wurden jahrhundertelang die schottischen Könige gekrönt, bis ihn Eduard I. Zu Weihnachten wurde der Stein gestohlen und erst nach langem Suchen wiedergefunden. Sie befindet sich in der City of Westminster. Erzbischof Nicholas Wiseman — begann mit den Spendensammlungen für die neue Kathedrale.

Er war der erste römisch-katholische Kardinal und Erzbischof in England nach der Reformation. Doch erst im Jahre konnte mit dem Bau begonnen werden. Eröffnet wurde die Kathedrale im Jahre Man entschied sich beim Bau für den byzantinischen Stil. Im Inneren überrascht sie durch die Raumwirkung und vor allem durch die Mosaiken an Decken und Wänden, die ständig vervollständigt werden. Errichtet wurde er in den er-Jahren von einer hinduistischen Sekte, der Swaminarayan-Mission aus Ahmedabad Indien.

Innerhalb von drei Jahren wurde das Bauwerk zusammengefügt und am In der Konstruktion ist auf Eisenträger verzichtet worden, da Stahl nach hinduistischem Verständnis Magnetwellen abstrahle, die die Meditationsruhe stören. Die Royal Parks waren einst den englischen beziehungsweise britischen Monarchen vorbehalten und wurden zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts in öffentlich zugängliche Parkanlagen umgewandelt. Greenwich Park ist einer dieser königlichen Parks in London.

Er liegt im Stadtbezirk Greenwich im Südosten von London. Dieser Park beinhaltet auch den zoologischen Garten London Zoo. Mitten im Stadtzentrum befinden sich der Green Park und der St. Es sind dort Pflanzen und Gewächse zu sehen, die nirgendwo sonst in Europa oder gar auf der nördlichen Halbkugel anzutreffen sind. Hauptattraktionen sind eine Herde mit Wapitis und Damhirschen , die freien Auslauf haben, sowie die Isabella Plantation , ein Gebiet mit zahlreichen seltenen Pflanzenarten.

Die London Scottish spielen in der 2. Liga, der RFU Championship. Es wurde mit der offiziellen Eröffnung im Jahr durch einen Neubau ersetzt. Das berühmte Ruderrennen ihrer beiden Achter findet jährlich im März oder April auf der Themse statt. Sehr beliebt in London ist Cricket. Im Twickenham Stadium finden nationale und internationale Rugby -Spiele statt. Im April wird jeweils der London-Marathon durchgeführt, einer der beliebtesten Marathonläufe der Welt überhaupt.

Mit der Vergabe der Olympischen Spiele an die britische Hauptstadt war London die erste Stadt, welche zum dritten Mal — nach und — die Spiele ausrichtete. Das chinesische Neujahrsfest in Chinatown im Stadtteil Soho findet am zweiten Neumond nach der Wintersonnenwende , also zwischen dem Da der chinesische Kalender im Gegensatz zum gregorianischen Kalender astronomisch definiert ist, fällt das chinesische Neujahr jedes Jahr auf einen anderen Tag.

Januar erinnert Commemoration of King Charles I. Die Ablösung wird durch Militärkapellen begleitet, die traditionelle Märsche, Stücke beliebter Theatershows des West Ends und bekannte Popsongs spielen. Salutschüsse werden am 6. Februar Tag der Thronbesteigung , am April Geburtstag der Königin , am 2. Juni Tag der Krönung und am Juni Geburtstag des Duke of Edinburgh abgefeuert.

Fallen die Termine auf einen Sonntag, werden die Salutschüsse am folgenden Tag abgefeuert. Salutschüsse werden auch bei der Fahnenparade und der Parlamentseröffnung abgegeben. Oktober auf dem Trafalgar Square ansehen. Sie findet Sonnabendnacht um den 5. November in fast allen Teilen Londons statt. In der britischen Hauptstadt gibt es mehr als Eine Besonderheit der Stadt ist, dass sich in einigen Vierteln bestimmte Branchen konzentrieren.

Die Charing Cross Road ist bekannt für ihre Buchläden. Zahlreiche Kleidungs- und Schuhgeschäfte sind in der Neal Street zu finden. Harrods ist eines der bekanntesten Kaufhäuser der Stadt.

Sehenswert ist die Beleuchtung der Fassade, die aus rund Beim Besuch der Märkte Londons kann man die örtliche Kultur kennenlernen. In der Rangliste der leistungsstärksten Metropolregionen weltweit belegte sie damit den 5. In London haben die produzierenden Industriezweige seit vielen Jahren an Bedeutung verloren. Gegenwärtig sind lediglich noch zehn Prozent der Arbeitnehmer in diesem Sektor beschäftigt. Die Druck- und Verlagsindustrie schreibt noch die besten Umsatzzahlen.

Sie stellt ein Viertel der genannten Arbeitsplätze und hat einen Anteil von einem Drittel an der gesamten Produktion in London. Die High-Tech -Industrie, die auf elektronische und pharmazeutische Erzeugnisse spezialisiert ist, arbeitet erfolgreich mit hohen Umsätzen.

Im Sektor der Leichtindustrie sind Bekleidungswerke und Brauereien vertreten. Trotzdem weist London eine positive Handelsbilanz auf, was überwiegend auf den Dienstleistungssektor — insbesondere die Bereiche Finanzdienstleistungen und Tourismus — zurückzuführen ist. Die Aufhebung der Regulierungen, bekannt unter dem Begriff Big Bang , ermöglichte den Einstieg in die moderne Welt des elektronischen Finanzwesens.

Hier wird seit der Weltmarktpreis für Gold und seit der Weltmarktpreis für Silber festgestellt. Mehrere Hundert internationale Banken besitzen Filialen in London. Es ist eine Gemeinschaft von Versicherern, die fast jede Art von Versicherungen auf dem internationalen Markt übernimmt. Diese in Betrieb genommene Anlage muss sich offenbar nicht sehr bewährt haben und wurde inzwischen stillgelegt. Die BBC wurde am Oktober in London als unabhängiger Radiosender gegründet. Die erste Ausstrahlung eines Programms fand am November aus einem Londoner Studio statt.

Die Fleet Street war seit dem Jahrhundert traditionell die Heimat der britischen Presse. Der Daily Telegraph ist eine gegründete konservative Tageszeitung. Die Auflage beträgt Schwesterzeitung ist das Wochenblatt The Sunday Telegraph. The Times ist eine konservative Tageszeitung mit einer Auflage von The Guardian ist eine gegründete Tageszeitung mit einer Auflage von Ihre politische Gesamtausrichtung lässt sich als linksliberal beschreiben.

Mit dem Observer erscheint im gleichen Verlagshaus auch eine bedeutende Sonntagszeitung, die die Ausrichtung ihrer Schwesterzeitung teilt.

Er ist ebenso wie The Guardian eher dem linken Meinungsspektrum zuzuordnen. The Independent wurde gegründet und hat eine Auflage von Die Financial Times ist eine der wichtigsten Wirtschaftszeitungen der Welt, von der bis zum 7.

Dezember auch eine deutsche Ausgabe erschien. Nach seiner Emigration nach London gründete er erneut ein Unternehmen um über das Seekabel zwischen Dover und Calais Börsenkurse nach Paris zu übermitteln. Dr Vahan, Armenien in der Bibel: Studien zur Armenischen Geschichte ["Armenia in the Bible: Armenian historical studies"], Vienna: Göschen, [81 pp. University of Colorado Boulder, Verein Deutscher Rosenfreunde e.

Thielmann, ['Jacoby was the guiding force in Germany' largest and most powerful Oriental rug corporation. An affectionate look back at earlier days: Weaving, dyeing, embroidery"], Tbilisi: Food and drink"], Tbilisi: Stroyizdat, [ pp. Devrien, [ pp. Lang, [ pp. Steiner, [ pp.

Hachette, [ pp. Heliopolis, [ pp. Jünger was sent to the Caucasus from the 24th of October to the 13th of February to document war crimes and to report back on officer morale. The book includes an account of his two "tours" in Paris during the war. Fünf Jahre kriegsgefangen im Kaukasus , Osnabrück: Aufgrund seiner russischen Sprachkenntnisse zumeist in der Lagerverwaltung eingesetzt, hat er tiefe Einblicke in die Struktur der Lager, aber auch in die wirtschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Verhältnisse im Spätstalinismus der Sowjetrepublik Georgien gewonnen.

Eigene Beobachtungen, zahlreiche Gespräche mit Mitgefangenen, dem russischen und georgischen Lagerpersonal, aber auch die häufigen Kontakte zur Bevölkerung vermitteln lebendige Eindrücke vom Leben und der Arbeit der Kriegsgefangenen wie von den Menschen und der Natur Georgiens. Joseph, Alarodiens et proto-Basques: Heitz, [ pp. Missionsverlag, [ pp. Harrassowitz, [ pp.

The location of the various oriental churches ranged from Ethiopia to the Caucasus, and from the Mediterranean to southern India, Central Asia and China. This volume, which was first published in , provides an overview of oriental Christianity from its beginnings to modern times. The new edition has been heavily revised and updated. Includes a comprehensive bibliography. Kiepenheuer, "Kaukasische Reise: Karawane-Verlag, [84 pp.

Kaukasus-Bergfahrten an der Jahrhundert-Wende , Bonn: Köllen, [55 pp. Brill Academic Publishers, [ pp. This collection of articles discusses the relationship between West and East, North and South in Roman and Mediaeval times.

Most of the articles offer analysis of archaeological finds and sites in Crimea studies in recent years. University of Washington Press, Russisch-Kaiserliche Mineralogische Gesellschaft zu St.

Petersburg, [21 pp. Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, [ pp. Recipes adapted to American tastes and methods of preparation"], New York: Features "Cossack tribesmen" and "the Red Ravens — Stalin's elite corps of women commandos".

Etnograficheski ocherk , in E. Ethnographical Review" Pshavia i Pshavtsi: Etnograficheskoe obozrenie , in Zapiski of the C. Artanuji, [ pp. Brockhaus, [23 pp. Shrine and religious community"], Kutaisi: Created by teachers and teacher trainers for teachers and travelers.

Includes the real on culture, people, language, alphabet, communications, transportation, cities, places, weather, food, shopping, money, health, safety, sex, stuff, teaching and jobs.

Pages of vital links, addresses and numbers to help you find what you want. Anhang zur Reise in den Kaukasus und nach Georgien.

Die Sprache der urartaischen Inschriften und ihre Stellung im kaukasischen Sprachenkreise", in Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft , 5, Berlin: Memories of a journet from Tiflis to the Crimea"], Leipzig: Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, [84 pp. Kazgosizdat, [Illustrated book on dressmaking, with patterns and techniques for women's, men's and children's clothing, including traditional garb of the Caucasus.

Eindrücke von eine Reise , Bremen: Krüger, [ pp. Wolf, Kampf um den Kaukasus , München: Deutsches Druck- und Verlagshaus,? IV, [11 pp. Leopold Stocker, [ pp. Handbuch für individuelles Entdecken , Bielefeld: Trans-Religious Migrations of an Ancient Western Asian Symbolism , DK Printworld, ['This well-illustrated volume seeks to explain an enigmatic and paradoxical symbolism common to many of the world religions, both polytheistic and monotheistic - that of the cavernous maw of a great monster.

Drawing on a broad array of comparative evidence, including examples from Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish, Christian and Islamic religions, it delves on the cross-cultural points of contact that may have contributed to the spread of such zoomorphic hybrids from Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran to the Indian Subcontinent. Straddling the boundaries between popular and textual traditions the gaping jaws of a great monster is a mythical paradigm of the bivalence of a deep-seated historic force: Books on Demand, [ pp.

Publications on North Caucasian Languages No. Christoph Links, [ pp. Verlag Deutsche Buchwerkstätten, circa [92 pp. Trescher Verlag, [Guide-book for visitors to Georgia.

State Publishing House, Dirr published under the title "Das Familiengewohnheitsrecht der Tscherkessen" in the Zeitschrift für vergleichend Rechtswissenschaft , Vol.

Orient-Verlag, La guerre du Caucase: Cirque d'hiver, [12 pp. L'Attaque des Monts Oural'. Europa Verlag, [44 pp. The American Numismatic Society, [11 pp. Etnografia de Caucaso occidental y central , Valencia: Diputacio de Valencia, [38 pp. This sword is as iconic as the Japanese Katana or the English Saber. It is known for its ability to draw cut as well as maneuver with speed in fight on a mountain trail or in the village streets. This manual is filled with the origin methods translated in English and still in the original Russian used in the 19th the Century for teaching this amazing sword!.

A History , London: Olms Verlag, [1, pp. Europa-Verlag, [ pp. Leonardo - De Luca Editori, [ pp. Evidence from all the sites are discussed in general in the final chapter. The organization, tactics and equipment of Gebirgs units. Mountain artillery, uniforms and specialist equipment, the senior commanders of the Gebirgs formations of the German Army. Geoffrey Bles, [Notably Vol. Travels and Studies , London: Berliner Forschungen des Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte, [84 pp.

Panorama dell' universo sroria e descrizione di tutti i popoli ["Russia: A panorama of its territories and a description of all its peoples"], 3 volumes, Naples: Academic Studies Press, [ pp. At once somehow part of "Europe," at least aspirationally, and yet rarely recognized by others as such, Georgia attempted to forge European style publics as a strong claim to European identity. These attempts also produced a crisis of self-definition, as European Georgia sent newspaper correspondents into newly reconquered Oriental Georgia, only to discover that the people of these lands were strangers.

In this encounter, the community of "strangers" of European Georgian publics proved unable to assimilate the people of the "strange land" of Oriental Georgia. This crisis produced both notions of Georgian public life and European identity which this book explores. University of Toronto Press, [ pp. On the one hand, their practices were romantic, but could never lead to marriage. On the other hand, they were sexual, but didn't correspond to what North Americans, or most Georgians, would have called sex.

These practices were well documented by early ethnographers before they disappeared completely by the midtwentieth century, and have become a Georgian obsession. In this fascinating book, Manning recreates the story of how these private, secretive practices became a matter of national interest, concern, and fantasy.

Looking at personal expressions of love and the circulation of these narratives at the broader public level of the modern nation, Love Stories offers an ethnography of language and desire that doubles as an introduction to key linguistic genres and to the interplay of language and culture. A Patchwork of Challenges , Lanham Maryland: It also examines Russia's policy response to these challenges and its preparations for the Games, as well as the work that still needs to be done.

Chronologsies for the 4th-3rd millenium B. Vergleichende Chronologie des 4. Delagrave, [ pp. Wigand, [ pp. Walter de Gruyter, [Vol. I, A-K], and [Vol. A study , New York: Albert Unger, [Soviet marshal, in command of the Caucasus front in LXII , Innsbruck: Wanderungen, Erlebnisse, Beobachtungen , Leipzig: University of Chicago Press, [ pp.

L'Harmattan, [Contains a chapter entitled "Le cannabis chez le Vieux de la montagne dans le Caucase". Reprinted in Amsterdam by Meridian Publishing Co. Events in Turkey; 2. Events in the Caucasus and Trans-Caspia; 3.

Penguin Books, [A survey of archaeological knowledge in the Soviet Union from Paleolithic to Medieval during the Communist era with a consequent Marxist interpretation of history applied to the subject, at a time when Western knowledge of Russian archaeology was almost unknown, with c. A French translation was published in Moscow in Self-published, ['The following Notes on Georgia and the New Russian conquests beyond the Caucasus were collected by me when charged with the delineation of the Frontier between Persia and Russia, they were solely intended for my own use but having been often solicited for Copies I have thought it more convenient to get a few printed for distribution among those who had expressed a wish to have them.

Viaggio nel cuore del Caucaso , Vicchio di Mugello: Polaris, [ pp. Finlande et Caucase , Paris: Recherches sur les origines des peuples du Caucase , pp. An Oriental Romance , 2 volumes, London: Ernest Leroux, [70 pp. Imprimerie nationale, [11 pp. Ernest Leroux, [ pp. Maisonneuve, [ pp. James Wyld John Murray , [Revised third edition. Paul Geuthner, [No further volumes ever published; contents: Jacob Dybwads Forlag, translated by G. Wheeler, Through the Caucasus to the Volga , London: Biological Sciences , , , pp.

Michael Imhof, [ pp. Aarhus University Press, [ pp. Die orientalischen Hochkulturen der Hethiter und Assyrer sind im Rückzug begriffen.

Südkaukasische Adelsgefolgschaften mussten ihre angestammten Siedlungskammern verlassen. Sie treffen auf traditionelle Nomadengesellschaften.

In einem interdisziplinären archäologisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Ansatz wird vorgelegt, zu welchen Leistungen die frühen Metallurgen in der Lage waren und welche Forschungsmeinungen als überholt gelten müssen. Arndt-Verlag in der Rathaus-Buchhandlung, [ pp.

Strecker und Schröder, [60 pp. Verlegt von der Georgischen Abteilung der Akademie der Wiss. Charles Scribner's Sons, ['Nogales was a Venezuelian mercenary who fought for the Turkish army against the Russians in the Caucasus and against the British in Mesopotamia and Palestine. He claimed to have been the only Christian to have witnessed the Armenian massacres and deportations.

Druck von Johann L. Sa misson en Russie et son voyage au Caucase , Paris: Six memoirs from the years against the National-Socialist colonial theory"], Asendorf: Büchergilde Gutenberg, [ pp. Bouis , New York: In , a lone Englishman is sent to save the Caucasus from Russia.

Davies , 2 volumes, London: Urachhaus, [ pp. A tract for the times, dedicated to the European police", London: Self-published, [47 pp. Houghton Mifflin, ['Novel of sport and adventure set in eastern Russia. A mountain world", in Russian Cooking , New York: Cooley , New York: Kindler, [ pp.

Sovetakan Groch, [ pp. Dieterich'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, [ pp. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography states that 'few foreigners were better acquainted with the languages and customs of the Caucasus mountain peoples, with whom he established such friendly relations that he was admitted into their remotest strongholds.

According to the Levantine Herald , as quoted by The Athenaeum , he wrote a book on the Caucasus which was not approved by the Foreign Office. His widow promised to publish it, but it is not known whether it ever appeared. Henry, The remains of the late Viscount Royston, with a memoir of his life , London: John Murray, [ pp. The book contains pages of his letters to his father, the Earl of Hardwicke, describing his experiences.

Droemer, [ pp. Carl Gerold, [Includes an account of her trip through Georgia. Adolf Bonz, [ pp. A Quarterly Review of Archaeology , Vol.

Kiepenheuer und Witsch, [ pp. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, [ pp. Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker, [70 pp. A Russian Reporter in Chechnya , Harvill, Notes de voyage , Montpellier: Roman der deutschen Unruhe , Stuttgart u. Klaproth , 2 volumes, Paris: Gustav Radde und Dr. Januar bis 1. Januar , Tiflis: Hahn's biography of Radde; written in collaboration with K. From the Caucasus to the Kremlin , London: Panzer-Division, , Verband ehemaliger Angehöriger der VI, "L'Asie russe", Paris: Alfred Holder, [27 pp.

Engelhorns, [76 pp. Verlag "Der Christliche Osten", [ colour photographs. Krisen- und Konfliktmanagement in der Kaukasus-Region , Wien: Böhlau, [ pp. Isdanie Geologitscheskowo Komiteta Leningrad, [ pp. Westkaukasus, Swanetien, Elbrusregion , Leipzig: Brockhaus, [ pp.

Institut Orell Füssli, [ pp. World Rail Atlas Ltd, [With detailed maps. Features the railway systems, past and present, of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. Notes de voyage , Paris: Edition Karo, [ pp. Über den Sitz des Mosaischen Paradieses und der Sündfluth. Über den geographischen sitz der Aorsen, Awaren und Hunnen. The Story of North Ossetia , London: Sportverlag, [ pp.

Schlesische Buchdruckerei, Kunst- und Verlags-Anstalt, vorm. His Majesty's Stationery Office, Russia: It was therefore most probably composed about The earliest quotation from the poem dates to the 15th century, and the earliest manuscript copy of it is from the 17th century. Tschiaturi im Kaukasus , Halle: Knapp, [90 pp. Oktober , Rahden:

Past Events

Marz ", in Russische Revue , Vol. Tauris, ['Examining US policy from Clinton to Obama and drawing on interviews with leading figures in the US administration, this study presents the first systematic analysis of US policy towards the Caspian states.

Closed On:

L'auteur fut un des plus grands botanistes de son temps. It is also carried encrypted on a number of satellites for international reception—including but not limited to Hot Bird , Nilesat , Amos 1 and Intelsat

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