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File:Über die Geschichte und Bedeutung des Wehrbeitrages.pdf

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Baldwin (name) Baldwin or Balduin is an Old German surname. It may derive from Bealdwine, or the Old German equivalent Baldavin, meaning "brave, bold friend". We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us.

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In the spelling Balens appeared. After the capture of Vaud by Bern in Ballens shared in the fate of Aubonne and in it became part of the district of Aubonne.

It finally became a part of the canton of Vaud as a part of a treaty. In Ballens was assigned to the district of Morges, and in it became part of the district of Aubonne. It is a scattered village, spread out over a knoll on a plateau at the foot of the Jura Mountains. Ballens has an area, as of [update] , of 8.

Of this area, 5. Of the rest of the land, 0. Of the built up area, housing and buildings made up 1. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests.

Of the agricultural land, All the water in the municipality is flowing water. It contains a section of the western edge of the Swiss Plateau. The municipality stretches from the foot of the Jura Mountains eastward over the valley lowlands of the Veyron River and the rise that Ballens sits on and then to the dry river valley of Grand Marais in the east.

The municipality was part of the Aubonne District until it was dissolved on 31 August , and Ballens became part of the new district of Morges. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Or, on a bend Gules in chef dexter a cross bottony Argent.

Ballens has a population as of December [update] of It has changed at a rate of Most of the population as of [update] speaks French or There are 2 people who speak Italian. Of the population in the municipality or about There were or In [update] there were 5 live births to Swiss citizens and were 3 deaths of Swiss citizens. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens increased by 2 while the foreign population remained the same.

There were 3 Swiss men and 2 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland. At the same time, there were 2 non-Swiss men who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in from all sources, including moves across municipal borders was an increase of 13 and the non-Swiss population increased by 3 people. This represents a population growth rate of 3. In cases where intermarriage occurred, members of the other ethnic groups frequently assimilated into German culture, adopting language, customs, and German family names.

They were then considered Germans, leading to the ethnogenesis of the Baltic Germans. Barclay de Tolly and George Armitstead , who emigrated from the British Isles, married into and became part of the Baltic-German community. Small numbers of Ethnic Germans began to settle in the area in the late 12th century when traders and Christian missionaries began to visit the coastal lands inhabited by tribes who spoke Finnic and Baltic languages.

Systematic conquest and settlement of these lands was completed during the Northern Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries which resulted in creation of the Terra Mariana confederation, under the protection of Roman Popes and Holy Roman Empire. During the next three centuries German-speaking soldiers, clergymen, merchants and craftsmen constituted the majority of the quickly growing urban population, as the native inhabitants usually were prohibited from settling there.

Membership in the Hanseatic League and active trade links with Russia and Europe increased wealth of Baltic German traders. As the military power of the Teutonic Knights weakened during the 15th century wars with the Kingdom of Poland , Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Grand Duchy of Moscow , the Livonian branch in the north began to pursue its own policies. When the Prussian branch of the Order secularized in and became a Polish vassal state as the Duchy of Prussia , the Livonian branch remained independent while searching for a similar way to secularize.

Livonia became mostly Protestant during the Reformation. In , Terra Mariana ceased to exist and was divided among Denmark which took the island of Ösel , Sweden which took northern Estonia and Poland, which annexed the newly created Duchy of Livonia , and granted the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia , a vassal state of Poland-Lithuania, to the last Master of the Livonian Order Gotthard Kettler. The secularized land was divided among the remaining knights who formed the basis of Baltic nobility.

The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia existed as a German-speaking country until , while the northern part of Duchy of Livonia was conquered by Sweden which controlled parts of Estonia between and and Swedish Livonia between and , having signed an agreement with the local Baltic German nobles not to undermine their political rights and autonomy. It remained the only institution of higher education in the former Livonian territories and became the intellectual focus of the Baltic Germans.

At the end of the 17th century Sweden introduced the land reduction in its Baltic provinces and properties held by German nobility became the property of the Crown. That effectively turned serfs into free peasants, but it would be overturned when Russia conquered these territories in and restored the rights of German landowners under the Treaty of Nystad. The Baltic provinces remained autonomous and were self-governed by the local Baltic nobility.

Until the imperial reforms of s local government was in the hands of the landtag of each province, in which only members of the matriculated Baltic nobility held membership and cities were ruled by German burgomasters.

Between and approximately Baltic German ruling class enjoyed great autonomy from the Imperial government and achieved great political influence in the Imperial court. Starting from the 18th century Baltic German nobility increasingly assumed leading posts in the Russian imperial government, after all, Russia was ruled by a German dynasty of Holstein-Gottorp , and Baltic Germans provided a well-educated, Westernized elite.

Germans, other than the local estate-owners, mainly lived in the cities, such as Riga , Reval , Dorpat , Pernau and Mittau. As late as the midth century the population of many of these cities still had a German majority, with Estonian, Latvian or Jewish minorities. By Riga 's population was German political and cultural autonomy ceased in the s, when Russification replaced German administration and schooling with the usage of Russian.

After provincial governors usually were Russians. Years of peace under Russian rule brought increasing prosperity and many new manor houses were built in country estates, but economic exploitation worsened situation of the native population. For examples, see List of palaces and manor houses in Latvia and List of palaces and manor houses in Estonia. The native Latvian and Estonian population enjoyed fewer rights under the Baltic German nobility compared to the farmers in Germany, Sweden, or Poland.

In contrast to the Baltic Germans, Estonians and Latvians had restricted civil rights and resided mostly in rural areas as serfs , tradesmen, or as servants in manors and urban homes. They had no rights to leave their masters and no last names. This was in keeping with the social scheme of things in Russian Empire , and lasted until the 19th century, when emancipation from serfdom brought those inhabitants increased civil freedoms and some political rights.

In Livonian peasant law was introduced by Imperial government, aimed at improving condition of serfs. Serfdom was abolished in all Baltic provinces between and , about half a century earlier than in Russia proper. For some time there was no outward tension between the German speakers and indigenous residents. If earlier any Latvian or Estonian who managed to rise above his class was expected to Germanize and to forget his roots, by the middle of 19th century German urban classes began to feel increasing competition from the natives, who after the First Latvian National Awakening and Estonian national awakening produced their own middle class and moved to German and Jewish dominated towns and cities in increasing numbers.

The Revolution of led to attacks against the Baltic German landowners, the burning of manors, and the torture and even killing of members of the nobility. During the Revolution groups of rebels burned over manor houses and German owned buildings and killed 82 Germans. In response Cossack punitive expeditions aided by German nobles and officers burned down hundreds of farms, arrested and deported thousands and summarily executed at least 2, people.

Reaction to Revolution included a scheme by Karl Baron von Manteuffel-Szoege and Silvio Broedrich-Kurmahlen to pacify the countryside by settling up to 20, ethnic German farmers, mostly from Volhynia , in Courland.

German heritage made them to be seen as the enemy by Russians. They were seen also as traitors by the German Empire if they remained loyal to Russia. Their loyalty to the state was questioned and rumors of a German fifth column increased together with the defeats of the Imperial army led by Baltic German general Paul von Rennenkampf. All German schools and societies were closed in the Estonian Governorate and Germans were ordered to leave the Courland Governorate for inner Russia.

Courland was conquered by Germany in and included into the military Ober Ost administration. The Ober Ost military administration began plans for German colonization of Courland. This was approved by Courland's German nobility on September 22, Livonian and Estonian nobles on January 28, delivered a note of independence to Soviet representatives in Stockholm, announcing their intent to break away from Russia under the rights granted to them by the Treaty of Nystad of In response Bolsheviks, who controlled Estonia, arrested leading Germans and deported them to Russia.

After signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk they were allowed to return. In spring of Baltic Germans announced the restoration of the independent Duchy of Courland and Semigallia and pursued plans for uniting it with the Kingdom of Prussia. Its regency council met on November 9, but collapsed together with the German Empire. The Baltic Germans' rule and class privileges came to the end with the demise of the Russian Empire due to the Bolshevik revolution of October and the independence of Estonia and Latvia in — Baltic Germans greatly suffered under Bolshevik regimes in Estonia and Latvia.

While short-lived, they pursued Red Terror against Germans, often killing them purely because of their nationality. After the collapse of the German Empire, Baltic Germans in Estonia began forming volunteer units to defend against the Bolshevik threat.

On November 27, this was authorized by the Estonian government, and the Volunteer Baltic Battalion Freiwilligen Baltenbataillon was formed under the command of Colonel Constantin von Weiss de. During the Estonian and Latvian independence wars of —, many Baltic Germans signed voluntarily into the newly formed Estonian and Latvian armies to help secure the independence of these countries from Russia.

The State archives of Estonia and Latvia keep individual military records of each person who fought in this war. Baltische Landeswehr units took Riga on May 22, which was followed by White Terror in which up to 2, people, mostly Latvians, were shot as suspected Bolshevik supporters. Baltic Germans of the Livonian Governorate found themselves in two new countries, both of which introduced sweeping agrarian reforms aimed at the large land owners, an absolute majority of whom were Germans.

After , many Baltic Germans felt obliged to depart the newly independent states for Germany , but many stayed as ordinary citizens. In there were 70, Germans in Latvia 3. Riga remained by far the largest German center with 38, Germans residing there in , while Tallinn then had 6, Germans. While the German landed class soon lost most of their lands after the agrarian reforms, they continued to work in their professions and to lead their companies.

German cultural autonomy was respected. At the same time, as both young states built their institutions this often reduced the status of their minorities. In Latvia, children of mixed marriages were registered as Latvians while in Estonia they took the nationality of their fathers, who increasingly were Estonians. This quickly reduced the number of German children. German place names were eliminated from public use. German congregations lost their churches.

Tallinn Cathedral was given to an Estonian congregation in After the referendum St. James's Cathedral in Riga was lost and Riga Cathedral taken away after another referendum in Radical agrarian reforms were implemented in both countries to break German power and to distribute land to the veterans of independence wars and landless peasants. This largely destroyed the landed class of German noble families and their economic base.

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From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Captions English Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. Description Über die Geschichte und Bedeutung des Wehrbeitrages.

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This time around no compensation was offered for any property or belongings left behind and this group of resettlers were treated with intense suspicion or considered traitors because they had refused Hitler's first call to leave the Baltics in

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