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Bilateral trade agreements in the Asia-Pacific : origins, evolution, and implications

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 · ASEAN - Die Association of Southeast Asian Nations, der Verband Südostasiatischer Nationen, ist eine internationale Organisation von Saaten Südostasiens. "Bilateral Trade Agreements in the Asia-Pacific examines the underlying political and economic factors driving these accords, based on a novel theoretical framework.

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All three ships were Deutschland and Admiral Scheer had clipper bows installed in —; their overall length was increased to Deutschland had a beam of Deutschland and Admiral Scheer had a standard draft of 5. Admiral Graf Spee ' s draft was 5.

The displacement of the three ships increased over the class. After , the crew was dramatically increased, to 30 officers and —1, sailors.

While serving as a squadron flagship, an additional 17 officers and 85 enlisted men augmented the crew. The second flagship had an additional 13 officers and 59 sailors. The ships carried a number of smaller boats, including two picket boats, two barges, one launch , one pinnace , and two dinghies. The Kriegsmarine considered the ships to be good sea boats, with a slight roll. As built, they were wet in a head sea , though this was significantly improved by the installation of a clipper bow in — The ships were highly maneuverable, particularly when the maneuvering setting for the diesel engines was used, in which half of the engines for each shaft were run in reverse.

The low stern was wet in a stern sea , and equipment stored there was frequently lost overboard. The Deutschland -class ships were equipped with four sets of 9-cylinder, double-acting, two-stroke diesel engines built by MAN. The engines were paired on two propeller shafts, which were attached to three-bladed screws that were 4.

Deutschland was initially fitted with 3. They did not meet the expected shaft-horsepower on trials, though they did exceed their design speeds. Horsepower figures for Admiral Graf Spee are not recorded, though her top speed on trials was Electricity was supplied by four electric generators powered by two diesel engines.

Steering was controlled by a single rudder. They were supplied with a total of rounds of ammunition, though later in their careers this was increased to 1, rounds. As built, the ships' anti-aircraft battery consisted of three 8. These were replaced in with six 8. Admiral Graf Spee and Deutschland were rearmed in and , respectively, with six The bow and stern were unarmored at the waterline. The upper edge of the belt on Deutschland and Admiral Scheer was at the level of the armored deck.

On Admiral Graf Spee , it was extended one deck higher. The armored deck in Deutschland and Admiral Scheer did not extend over the entire width of the ship due to weight; this matter was rectified in Admiral Graf Spee.

Likewise, the torpedo bulkheads for Deutschland and Admiral Scheer stopped at the inside of the double-bottom but in Admiral Graf Spee extended to the outer hull.

Admiral Scheer and Admiral Graf Spee had some improvements in armor thickness. The Kriegsmarine initially classified the ships as " Panzerschiffe " armored ships , but in February it reclassified the two survivors of the class as heavy cruisers. In Jane's Fighting Ships stated the Deutschland -class "[a]re officially rated as 'Armoured Ships' Panzerschiffe and popularly referred to as 'Pocket Battleships'.

Actually, they are equivalent to armoured cruisers of an exceptionally powerful type. Deutschland was laid down at the Deutsche Werke shipyard in Kiel on 5 February , [5] under the contract name Panzerschiff A , as a replacement for the old battleship Preussen. Work began under construction number The ship accidentally started sliding down the slipway while Brüning was giving his christening speech. Serious political opposition to the ships continued after the authorization for Deutschland , and a political crisis over the second ship, Admiral Scheer , was averted only after the Social Democrats abstained from voting.

As a result of the opposition, Panzerschiff B was not authorized until Admiral Graf Spee , the third and final member of the class, was also ordered by the Reichsmarine from the Kriegsmarinewerft shipyard in Wilhelmshaven.

She was ordered under the contract name Panzerschiff C to replace the battleship Braunschweig. After Hitler had given the order in late January for the two remaining ships to be scrapped, the possibility of instead converting them into aircraft carriers was discussed. Conversion time was estimated at two years. This plan was not pursued. Deutschland saw significant action with the Kriegsmarine , including several non-intervention patrols , during which she was attacked by Republican bombers.

Bad weather hampered her efforts, and she sank or captured only three vessels before returning to Germany, after which she was renamed Lützow. While en route, she was torpedoed by a British submarine and seriously damaged. Repairs were completed by March , and in June Lützow steamed to Norway. While en route, she was torpedoed by a British bomber, necessitating significant repairs that lasted until May She returned to Norway to join the forces arrayed against Allied shipping to the Soviet Union.

She ran aground during a planned attack on convoy PQ 17 , which necessitated another return to Germany for repairs. Engine problems forced a series of repairs culminating in a complete overhaul at the end of , after which the ship remained in the Baltic. Admiral Scheer saw heavy service with the German Navy, including several deployments to Spain during the Spanish Civil War, to participate in non-intervention patrols.

While on the operation, she also made a brief foray into the Indian Ocean. Following her return to Germany, she was deployed to northern Norway to interdict shipping to the Soviet Union. She was part of the abortive attack on Convoy PQ with the battleship Tirpitz ; the operation was broken off after surprise was lost. She also conducted Operation Wunderland , a sortie into the Kara Sea.

She was sunk by British bombers on 9 April and partially scrapped; the remainder of the wreck lies buried beneath a quay. Admiral Graf Spee conducted extensive training in the Baltic and Atlantic before participating in five non-intervention patrols during the Spanish Civil War in — These forces included four aircraft carriers, two battleships, and one battlecruiser.

Admiral Graf Spee operated in concert with the supply ship Altmark. She inflicted heavy damage on the British ships, but suffered damage as well, and was forced to put into port at Montevideo.

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The engines were paired on two propeller shafts, which were attached to three-bladed screws that were 4.

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