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Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor building NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the only spacecraft designed for long-duration, human-rated deep space exploration.

Trudeau, with the acquiescence of Premier of Quebec Robert Bourassa , responded by invoking the War Measures Act which gave the government sweeping powers of arrest and detention without trial. Trudeau presented a determined public stance during the crisis, answering the question of how far he would go to stop the violence by saying " Just watch me ".

Laporte was found dead on October 17 in the trunk of a car. The cause of his death is still debated. Although this response is still controversial and was opposed at the time as excessive by parliamentarians like Tommy Douglas and David Lewis , it was met with only limited objections from the public.

After consultations with the provincial premiers, Trudeau agreed to attend a conference called by British Columbia Premier W.

Bennett to attempt to finally patriate the Canadian constitution. He established Canadian diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, before the United States did, and went on an official visit to Beijing.

He was known as a friend of Fidel Castro , the leader of Cuba. Trudeau was the first world leader to meet John Lennon and his wife Yoko Ono on their "tour for world peace ".

Lennon said, after talking with Trudeau for 50 minutes, that Trudeau was "a beautiful person" and that "if all politicians were like Pierre Trudeau, there would be world peace". In the federal election of , the Liberals won a minority government, with the New Democratic Party led by David Lewis holding the balance of power. Requiring NDP support to continue, the government would move to the political left, including the creation of Petro-Canada.

In May the House of Commons passed a motion of no confidence in the Trudeau government, defeating its budget bill after Trudeau intentionally antagonized Stanfield and Lewis. Stanfield proposed the immediate introduction of wage and price controls to help end the increasing inflation Canada was currently facing. Trudeau mocked the proposal, saying to a newspaper reporter that it was the equivalent of a magician saying "Zap!

You're frozen", and instead promoted a variety of small tax cuts to curb inflation. The Liberals were re-elected with a majority government with of the seats, prompting Stanfield's retirement. The Liberals won no seats in Alberta, though, where Peter Lougheed was a vociferous opponent of Trudeau's budget. While popular with the electorate, Trudeau's promised minor reforms had little effect on the growing rate of inflation, and he struggled with conflicting advice on the crisis.

The breadth of the legislation, which touched on many powers traditionally considered the purview of the provinces, prompted a Supreme Court reference that only upheld the legislation as an emergency requiring Federal intervention under the British North America Act. During the annual Christmas interview with CTV , Trudeau discussed the economy, citing market failures and stating that more state intervention would be necessary.

However, the academic wording and hypothetical solutions posed during the complex discussion led much of the public to believe he had declared capitalism itself a failure, creating a lasting distrust among increasingly neoliberal business leaders. Trudeau continued his attempts at increasing Canada's international profile, including joining the G7 group of major economic powers in at the behest of U. Trudeau faced increasing challenges in Quebec, starting with bitter relations with Bourassa and his Liberal government in Quebec.

After a rise in the polls after the rejection of the Victoria Charter, the Quebec Liberals had taken a more confrontational approach with the Federal government on the constitution, French language laws , and the language of air traffic control in Quebec. The PQ had chiefly campaigned on a "good government" platform, but promised a referendum on independence to be held within their first mandate.

While Trudeau claimed to welcome the "clarity" provided by the PQ victory, the unexpected rise of the sovereignist movement became, in his view, his biggest challenge. As the PQ began to take power, Trudeau faced the prolonged failure of his marriage, which was covered in lurid detail on a day-by-day basis by the English language press. Trudeau's reserve was seen as dignified by contemporaries and his poll numbers actually rose during the height of coverage, [66] but aides felt the personal tensions left him uncharacteristically emotional and prone to outbursts.

In , Trudeau, succumbing to pressure from the Communist Chinese, issued an order barring Taiwan from participating as China in the Montreal Olympics , although technically it was a matter for the IOC. As the s wore on, growing public exhaustion towards Trudeau's personality and the country's constitutional debates caused his poll numbers to fall rapidly in the late s. After a series of defeats in by-elections in , Trudeau waited as long as he could to call a statutory general election in He finally did so in the , only two months from the five-year limit provided under the British North America Act.

In the election of , Trudeau and the Liberals faced declining poll numbers and the Joe Clark —led Progressive Conservatives focusing on "pocketbook" issues. Trudeau and his advisors, to contrast with the mild-mannered Clark, based their campaign on Trudeau's decisive personality and his grasp of the Constitution file, despite the general public's apparent wariness of both. The traditional Liberal rally at Maple Leaf Gardens saw Trudeau stressing the importance of major constitutional reform to general ennui, and his campaign "photo-ops" were typically surrounded by picket lines and protesters.

Though polls portended disaster, Clark's struggles justifying his party's populist platform and a strong Trudeau performance in the election debate helped bring the Liberals to the point of contention.

Though winning the popular vote by four points, the Liberal vote was concentrated in Quebec and faltered in industrial Ontario, allowing the PCs to win the seat-count handily and form a minority government.

Trudeau soon announced his intention to resign as Liberal Party leader and favoured Donald Macdonald to be his successor. However, before a leadership convention could be held, with Trudeau's blessing and Allan MacEachen 's maneuvering in the house, the Liberals supported an NDP subamendment to Clark's budget stating that the House had no confidence in the budget.

In Canada, as in most other countries with a Westminster system , budget votes are indirectly considered to be votes of confidence in the government, and their failure automatically brings down the government.

Liberal and NDP votes and Social Credit abstentions led to the subamendment passing , thereby toppling Clark's government and triggering a new election for a House less than a year old. The Liberal caucus, along with friends and advisers persuaded Trudeau to stay on as leader and fight the election, with Trudeau's main impetus being the upcoming referendum on Quebec sovereignty. Trudeau and the Liberals engaged in a new strategy for the February election: On election day Ontario returned to the Liberal fold, and Trudeau and the Liberals defeated Clark and won a majority government.

The Liberal victory in highlighted a sharp geographical divide in the country: Trudeau, in an attempt to represent Western interests, offered to form a coalition government with Ed Broadbent's NDP, which had won 22 seats in the west, but was rebuffed by Broadbent out of fear the party would have no influence in a majority government.

Trudeau immediately initiated federal involvement in the referendum, reversing the Clark government's policy of leaving the issue to the Quebec Liberals and Claude Ryan. Unlike Ryan and the Liberals, he refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the referendum question, and noted that the "association" required consent from the other provinces. Trudeau stated that night that he "had never been so proud to be a Quebecer and a Canadian".

Trudeau had attempted patriation of the constitution earlier in his tenure, most notably with the Victoria Charter , but ran into the combined force of provincial premiers on the issues of an amending formula, a court-enforced Charter of Rights, and a further devolution of powers to the provinces.

After chairing a series of increasingly acrimonious conferences with first ministers on the issue, Trudeau announced the intention of the federal government to proceed with a request to the British parliament to patriate the constitution, with additions to be approved by a referendum without input from provincial governments.

After numerous provincial governments challenged the legality of the decision using their reference power , conflicting decisions prompted a Supreme Court decision that stated unilateral patriation was legal, but was in contravention of a constitutional convention that the provinces be consulted and have general agreement to the changes. After the court decision, which prompted some reservations in the British parliament of accepting a unilateral request, [81] Trudeau agreed to meet with the premiers one more time before proceeding.

At the meeting, Trudeau reached an agreement with nine of the premiers on patriating the constitution and implementing the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, with the caveat that provincial legislatures would have the ability to use a notwithstanding clause to protect some laws from judicial oversight.

The objection of the Quebec government to the new constitution became a source of continued acrimony between the federal and Quebec governments, and would forever stain Trudeau's reputation amongst nationalists in the province. A series of difficult budgets by long-time loyalist Allan MacEachen in the early s did not improve Trudeau's economic reputation.

However, after tough bargaining on both sides, Trudeau did reach a revenue-sharing agreement on energy with Alberta Premier Peter Lougheed in Trudeau's approval ratings slipped after the bounce from the patriation. Meanwhile, the Progressive Conservatives raced out to a substantial lead in opinion polls under new leader Brian Mulroney.

By the beginning of , it was obvious that the Liberals would be heavily defeated if Trudeau remained in office. On February 29, after what he described as a "long walk in the snow", Trudeau announced he would not lead the Liberals into the next election. He formally retired on June 30, ending his year tenure as Prime Minister. Trudeau was succeeded as Liberal leader and Prime Minister by former cabinet minister John Turner , who had been out of politics for almost a decade.

He and Turner then crafted a legal agreement calling for Turner to advise an additional 70 patronage appointments. The sheer volume of appointments, combined with questions about the appointees' qualifications, led to condemnation from across the political spectrum.

Turner claimed that "I had no option" but to let the appointments stand, prompting Mulroney to tell him, " You had an option, sir --to say 'no'--and you chose to say 'yes' to the old attitudes and the old stories of the Liberal Party.

Combined with anger in Quebec at being left out of patriation, the Liberals were heavily defeated at the election, losing 95 seats in what was then the worst defeat of a sitting government at the federal level. Trudeau joined the Montreal law firm Heenan Blaikie as counsel and settled in the historic Maison Cormier in Montreal following his retirement from politics.

Trudeau wrote and spoke out against both the Meech Lake Accord and Charlottetown Accord proposals to amend the Canadian constitution, arguing that they would weaken federalism and the Charter of Rights if implemented. His opposition to both Accords was considered one of the major factors leading to the defeat of the two proposals. Trudeau also remained active in international affairs, visiting foreign leaders and participating in international associations such as the Club of Rome.

He met with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and other leaders in ; shortly afterwards Gorbachev met President Ronald Reagan to discuss easing world tensions. He published his memoirs in ; the book sold hundreds of thousands of copies in several editions, and became one of the most successful Canadian books ever published.

In the Old age of his life, he was afflicted with Parkinson's disease and prostate cancer , and became less active, although he continued to work at his law practice until a few months before his death at the age of He was devastated by the death of his youngest son, Michel Trudeau , who was killed in an avalanche on November 13, Trudeau was a Roman Catholic and attended church throughout his life.

While mostly private about his beliefs, he made it clear that he was a believer, stating, in an interview with the United Church Observer in In this sense, he believed he was more like a Protestant than a Catholic of the era in which he was schooled. Higgins, a former President of St. Thomas University , has researched Trudeau's spirituality and finds that it incorporated elements of three Catholic traditions. The first of these was the Jesuits who provided his education up to the college level.

Trudeau frequently displayed the logic and love of argument consistent with that tradition. A second great spiritual influence in Trudeau's life was Dominican. Another skein in Trudeau's spirituality was a contemplative aspect acquired from his association with the Benedictine tradition. According to Higgins, Trudeau was convinced of the centrality of meditation in a life fully lived. Bush , Trudeau's spirituality, according to Michael W.

Higgins, "suffused, anchored, and directed his inner life. In no small part, it defined him. Described as a "swinging young bachelor" when he became prime minister in , [91] Trudeau also dated Hollywood star Barbra Streisand in [92] and Stephen's Roman Catholic parish church in North Vancouver.

Contrary to his publicized exploits, Trudeau was an intense intellectual with robust work habits and little time for family or fun. As a result, Margaret felt trapped and bored in the marriage, feelings that were exacerbated by her retroactively diagnosed bipolar depression. The couple had three sons: Their third son, Michel — , died in an avalanche while skiing in Kokanee Glacier Provincial Park. They separated in , and were finally divorced in When his divorce was finalized in , Trudeau became the first Canadian Prime Minister to become a single parent as the result of divorce.

The Movie and its sequels in the last months of his prime-ministership [] and after leaving office. Coyne later stood for the leadership of the federal Liberal Party in , [2] the same election that Trudeau's son Justin won, at which she came in fifth. Later, when he travelled to Japan as Prime Minister, he was promoted to shodan first-degree black belt by the Kodokan , and then promoted to nidan second-degree black belt by Masao Takahashi in Ottawa before leaving office.

Trudeau began the night of his famous "walk in the snow" before announcing his retirement in by going to judo with his sons. Trudeau remains well regarded by many Canadians. Trudeau's most enduring legacy may lie in his contribution to Canadian nationalism , and of pride in Canada in and for itself rather than as a derivative of the British Commonwealth.

His role in this effort, and his related battles with Quebec on behalf of Canadian unity, cemented his political position when in office despite the controversies he faced—and remain the most remembered aspect of his tenure afterwards. Some consider Trudeau's economic policies to have been a weak point. Inflation and unemployment marred much of his tenure as prime minister. Many politicians still use the term "taking a walk in the snow", the line Trudeau used to describe how he arrived at the decision to leave office in Other popular Trudeauisms frequently used are " just watch me ", the " Trudeau Salute ", and " Fuddle Duddle ".

Maclean's and scholarly surveys ranked him twice as the fifth best Canadian prime minister. One of Trudeau's most enduring legacies is the patriation of the Canadian constitution, including a domestic amending formula and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. It is seen as advancing civil rights and liberties and has become a cornerstone of Canadian values for most Canadians. It also represented the final step in Trudeau's liberal vision of a fully independent Canada based on fundamental human rights and the protection of individual freedoms as well as those of linguistic and cultural minorities.

Court challenges based on the Charter of Rights have been used to advance the cause of women's equality, re-establish French school boards in provinces such as Alberta and Saskatchewan, and to mandate the adoption of same-sex marriage all across Canada. Section 15, dealing with equality rights, has been used to remedy societal discrimination against minority groups.

The coupling of the direct and indirect influences of the charter has meant that it has grown to influence every aspect of Canadian life and the override notwithstanding clause of the charter has been infrequently used. Canadian conservatives claim the constitution has resulted in too much judicial activism on the part of the courts in Canada. It is also heavily criticized by Quebec nationalists , who resent that the amendments to the constitution were never ratified by any Quebec government and the constitution does not recognize a constitutional veto for Quebec.

Bilingualism is one of Trudeau's most lasting accomplishments, having been fully integrated into the Federal government's services, documents, and broadcasting not, however, in provincial governments, except for Ontario, New Brunswick, and Manitoba. While official bilingualism has settled some of the grievances Francophones had towards the federal government, many Francophones had hoped that Canadians would be able to function in the official language of their choice no matter where in the country they were.

However, Trudeau's ambitions in this arena have been overstated: Trudeau once said that he regretted the use of the term "bilingualism", because it appeared to demand that all Canadians speak two languages. In fact, Trudeau's vision was to see Canada as a bilingual confederation in which all cultures would have a place. In this way, his conception broadened beyond simply the relationship of Quebec to Canada.

It was the first of its kind in the world, [] and was then emulated in several provinces, such as Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and other countries most notably Australia, which has had a similar history and immigration pattern.

Beyond the specifics of the policy itself, this action signalled an openness to the world and coincided with a more open immigration policy that had been brought in by Trudeau's predecessor Lester B. In the last years of his tenure he ensured both the National Gallery of Canada and the Canadian Museum of Civilization had proper homes in the national capital region. The Trudeau government also implemented programs which mandated Canadian content in film, and broadcasting, and gave substantial subsidies to develop the Canadian media and cultural industries.

Though the policies remain controversial, Canadian media industries have become stronger since Trudeau's arrival. Trudeau's posthumous reputation in the Western Provinces is notably less favourable than in the rest of English-speaking Canada, and he is sometimes regarded as the "father of Western alienation ". To many westerners, Trudeau's policies seemed to favour other parts of the country, especially Ontario and Quebec, at their expense.

Outstanding among such policies was the National Energy Program , which was seen as unfairly depriving western provinces of the full economic benefit from their oil and gas resources, in order to pay for nationwide social programs, and make regional transfer payments to poorer parts of the country. More particularly, two incidents involving Trudeau are remembered as having fostered Western alienation, and as emblematic of it.

During a visit to Saskatoon , Saskatchewan on July 17, , Trudeau met with a group of farmers who were protesting the Canadian Wheat Board. The widely remembered perception is that Trudeau dismissed the protesters' concerns with "Why should I sell your wheat? Trudeau's legacy in Quebec is mixed. However, his imposition of the War Measures Act —which received majority support at the time—is remembered by some in Quebec and elsewhere as an attack on democracy.

Trudeau is also credited by many for the defeat of the Quebec referendum. At the federal level, Trudeau faced almost no strong political opposition in Quebec during his time as Prime Minister. For instance, his Liberal party captured 74 out of 75 Quebec seats in the federal election. Since the signing of the Constitutional Act of Canada in and until , the Liberal Party of Canada had not succeeded in winning a majority of seats in Quebec.

He was disliked by the Quebecois nationalists. Trudeau was a strong advocate for a federalist model of government in Canada, developing and promoting his ideas in response and contrast to strengthening Quebec nationalist movements, for instance the social and political atmosphere created during Maurice Duplessis ' time in power.

Federalism in this context can be defined as "a particular way of sharing political power among different peoples within a state Those who believe in federalism hold that different peoples do not need states of their own in order to enjoy self-determination.

As a social democrat, Trudeau sought to combine and harmonize his theories on social democracy with those of federalism so that both could find effective expression in Canada. He noted the ostensible conflict between socialism, with its usually strong centralist government model, and federalism, which expounded a division and cooperation of power by both federal and provincial levels of government.

And since the future of Canadian federalism lies clearly in the direction of co-operation, the wise socialist will turn his thoughts in that direction, keeping in mind the importance of establishing buffer zones of joint sovereignty and co-operative zones of joint administration between the two levels of government [46].

Trudeau pointed out that in sociological terms, Canada is inherently a federalist society, forming unique regional identities and priorities, and therefore a federalist model of spending and jurisdictional powers is most appropriate.

He argues, "in the age of the mass society, it is no small advantage to foster the creation of quasi-sovereign communities at the provincial level, where power is that much less remote from the people.

Trudeau's idealistic plans for a cooperative Canadian federalist state were resisted and hindered as a result of his narrowness on ideas of identity and socio-cultural pluralism: This position garnered significant criticism for Trudeau, in particular from Quebec and First Nations peoples on the basis that his theories denied their rights to nationhood.

Trudeau chose the following jurists to be appointed as justices of the Supreme Court of Canada by the Governor General:. Trudeau received several Honorary Degrees in recognition of his political career. Trudeau was appointed a Companion of the Order of Canada on June 24, Lawyer, professor, author and defender of human rights this statesman served as Prime Minister of Canada for fifteen years.

Lending substance to the phrase "the style is the man," he has imparted, both in his and on the world stage, his quintessentially personal philosophy of modern politics. Through hours of archival footage and interviews with Trudeau himself, the documentary Memoirs details the story of a man who used intelligence and charisma to bring together a country that was very nearly torn apart.

Trudeau's life is depicted in two CBC Television mini-series. The documentary film Just Watch Me: Trudeau and the '70s Generation explores the impact of Trudeau's vision of Canadian bilingualism through interviews with eight young Canadians. Bold indicates parties with members elected to the House of Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau disambiguation. Lawyer jurist academic author journalist politician.

Electoral history of Pierre Trudeau. Trudeau speaking about his omnibus bill , famously saying "there's no place for the state in the bedrooms of the nation". This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Death and state funeral of Pierre Trudeau. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. The Shaping of a Statesman Archived from the original on The Trudeau Years edited by Thomas S. Act current to July 11th, Retrieved 25 January Retrieved January 25, American Review of Canadian Studies.

The Will to Win , Toronto: Lester Publishing, page The Big Red Machine: John Turner and the Liberal Party's Debacle". In Penniman, Howard Rae. Prime members will enjoy a day and a half of our best deals, with 36 hours to shop more than one million deals worldwide.

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Malaysia forges close partnerships with industry associations and strategic partners from both the public and private sector, with the aim of fostering and strengthening sector and industry-specific cooperation and collaboration, as to further support and promote the development of SMEs and entrepreneurs in Malaysia. National Labor Party Deputy Leader —

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