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Selten at the 2nd Lindau Meeting on Economic Sciences in His first publication, Sauermann and Selten , was an experimental study of oligopoly behaviour, and his famous paper, where he first defined subgame perfectness, was motivated by his experimental studies of oligopoly behaviour.

Selten a differentiated three roots of human behaviour: He particularly emphasized the important influence of cognition on motivation and adaptation, and eventually on behaviour. For example, in a series of papers starting with Selten and Stoecker , Selten developed his idea of learning direction theory and impulse balance equilibrium.

For a class of repeated decision tasks, these models describe an influence of cognition on adaptation. The idea is that decision-makers tend to follow a principle of ex post rationality: Importantly, the decision-maker is not just guided by trial-and-error, nor by sophisticated Bayesian or other predictions, nor by the result of some maximization procedure.

Yet, this kind of reasoning nevertheless involves a cognitive model of the world, about what previously would have been a better choice. Selten and his students further developed the model, so that it could successfully predict various behavioural patterns in different experimental contexts such as bargaining, auctions, newsvendor games, and other settings for example, Ockenfels and Selten Both descriptive theory and normative theory are important perspectives for understanding the nature of social and economic interaction.

Selten was a pioneer of the analysis of strategic interaction of both fully rational players game theory and boundedly rational humans experimental economics. Selten was also an inspiring teacher, with a seemingly limitless knowledge of the relevant literatures across disciplines, tremendous methodological originality, and remarkable curiosity, also regarding other sciences he also contributed to philosophy, psychology, evolutionary biology, political science, linguistics, and botany.

The other Axel had the honour and pleasure of work with him for twenty years, after Selten supervised his diploma thesis.

While many academics spend much of their time and energy chasing publications in prestigious journals, or chasing funds, status, influence, and power within their organizations, Reinhard did none of these. He had one, and only one, thing in mind: It was the best lesson a teacher could teach his student. Nobel Media AB Manches reicht zu weit, manches greift zu kurz.

Nein, die humanoiden Roboter werden nicht schon morgen die Weltherrschaft übernehmen. Was ist damit gemeint?

Der technische Fortschritt ging einher mit der Rechnergeschwindigkeit und der Erhöhung der Speicherkapazität. Doch um Vorgänge des menschlichen Gehirns automatisiert zu simulieren, entsteht ein hoher Energieaufwand. Ganz im Gegensatz zur natürlichen Methode des Lernzuwachses, bei der sich auf energiesparende Weise die Vernetzungsdichte erhöht.

Diese Welten zusammenzubringen ist keine komplette Zukunftsmusik mehr, sondern wird zum Beispiel von Tony Prescott, Professor für kognitive Neurowissenschaften an der University of Sheffield , am Beispiel von iCub dargestellt. Er spricht, reagiert auf seine Umwelt und lernt unter anderem durch Nachahmung.

Wie ist das möglich? Dabei wurden zwar auch schon erstaunliche Erfolge erzielt, aber bisher beinhaltete dieses Vorgehen auch klassische Fallstricke, in denen die künstlich intelligente Maschine die richtige, aber trotzdem falsche Antwort gab, weil sie nicht Abwägen konnte zwischen faktisch richtig und trotzdem nicht die gewünschte Antwort.

Doch auf dem Gebiet der Neurorobotik tun sich neue Dimensionen auf. Psychologie und Neurowissenschaften liefern wesentliche Erkenntnisse, die dann von den Ingenieurwissenschaften und der Programmierung aufgegriffen werden. Weitere Beiträge dazu kann auch die Computer- Linguistik liefern. Zudem lernt er wie ein Säugling, indem er kleine Bewegungen ausführt und deren Konsequenzen beobachtet.

So bekommt der Roboter eine Art Körpergefühl. Denn iCub muss lernen, zwischen sich und dem Rest der Welt zu unterscheiden. Software und Hardware laufen unter Open-Source-Lizenz und werden ständig weiterentwickelt.

Der entscheidende nächste Schritt ist, dass iCub vergangene Erfahrungen für die Gegenwart und Ereignisse, die erst noch passieren werden, nutzt. Dafür wird versucht, die Informationsverarbeitung in den entsprechenden menschlichen Gehirnregionen, die für autobiografische Erinnerungen zuständig sind, nachzuahmen. Für das iCub Projekt arbeiten übrigens Expertenteams aus vielen verschiedenen europäischen Ländern, vornehmlich Italien und Spanien, immer an einer bestimmten Schnittstelle.

Vision ist, wenn alle Komponenten, aus denen auch das menschliche Bewusstsein besteht, perfekt nachgeahmt und zusammen gesetzt werden, ein Roboter entsteht, der Seite an Seite mit Menschen agieren kann. Die Medizinische Forschung wiederum treibt die Vision von Nanorobotern an, die durch unsere Blutbahn steuern, bis sie ihre jeweilige Mission erfüllt haben und den Befehl zur Selbstzerstörung erhalten.

Oder wie Nobelpreisträger Eric Betzig sagt: Some reach too far, some do not reach far enough. No, humanoid robots will not achieve world domination tomorrow. Or, as the philosopher and AI expert, Klaus Mainzer, describes it: What does this mean? Technical progress goes hand in hand with computer speed and an increase in memory capacity. But to automatically simulate the processes in the human brain requires a greater amount of energy — which is in complete contrast to the natural method of learning gains, in which the cross-linking density increases in a way that saves energy.

Bringing these worlds together is no longer entirely a distant dream, but is illustrated by the work done by Tony Prescott, Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of Sheffield , on his iCub project, for example.

It speaks, reacts to its environment and learns in a number of ways including by imitation. How is that possible? Was it not always the case that robots could only know whatever we had directly fed them, i. While a surprising level of success was achieved in this way, the process was also subject to the classic pitfalls in which the artificially intelligent machine gave the right yet also wrong answer, because it could not weigh up the difference between the factually correct answer and the answer that was actually required.

But new dimensions are opening up in the area of neurorobotics. Psychology and neuroscience are delivering key findings that are then picked up by the engineering sciences and programming. Computer linguistics can also make an important contribution. In the case of iCub, the crucial impetus came from disciplines that track the way the human brain works and deal with the composition of our conscious mind.

It also learns in the same way that an infant does, by executing small movements and observing the consequences of such movements. The robot thus acquires a degree of body awareness, as iCub must learn to distinguish between itself and the rest of the world. Its software and hardware are completely open source in order to facilitate global knowledge about humanoid robotics. The crucial next step is that iCub uses past experiences for the present and for events that are still to occur.

To do this, scientists try to simulate the information processing activity that takes place in the relevant areas of the human brain that are responsible for autobiographical memories. Their vision is that when all the components that make up human consciousness are perfectly simulated and compiled, the result will be a robot that can function side by side with humans.

For Klaus Mainzer, the crucial step in the discipline of artificial intelligence was the further development of sensors. Here, it is not just a case of, as has already happened, assuming that assembly line work will be supported by the partial deployment of robots.

Instead, the world of things will be populated with, for example, sensors, and workpieces and workbenches will communicate with one another. Medical research in turn is driving the vision of nanorobots that travel through our bloodstream until they have fulfilled their respective mission and receive the order to self-destruct.

Telescopes have come a long way. From the first refracting telescope designed by Hans Lippershay, Sacharias Jansen and Jacob Metius of Alkmaar in , which used 2 small pieces of glass to magnify objects, to Sir Isaac Newton building the first reflecting telescope, which used mirrors instead of lenses with a lens diameter of 2 inches, or 0.

But where do we currently stand? What are the best telescopes that are still performing science in the world? First, a note on how we build big telescopes.

Typically, the smallest telescopes are 2 lenses, one in front of the other. However, if you make a lens too big, it can sag, since glass is a liquid and can deform. The largest telescope ever built, using lenses, is 40 inches, or about 1 meter. If you want bigger than this, then you use mirrors in your telescope instead. Mirror telescopes work up until 8. Above this size, the mirrors themselves become too heavy and begin to deform, making single mirror telescopes bigger than this impossible.

You then stitch all of these mirrors together to make a telescope…well…as big as you want! So in the title of each telescope below, it states whether the telescope is a single mirror or segmented, and the approximate cost of building the telescope in dollars.

In , the largest optical telescope in the world was 2. In , with the completion of the inch Hale telescope, it was 5. Bonus points for its very unique design. SALT is such a strange telescope, and very hard to position on this list. With a primary mirror which is 11 meter X 9. My reason for not putting SALT higher in the list is due to its design.

Which means SALT can only view a narrow strip of the sky. The Gemini telescopes are twin 8. Unlike SALT, and the other 10 meter class telescopes, the 8. This is truly exceptional, as these mirrors are pushing the limits to how big you can make a mirror before it begins to sag and tear itself apart. The mirrors are also coated in silver, instead of the more traditional aluminium. This gives Gemini a distinct advantage when observing in the mid-infrared.

In operation now for 16 years, both telescopes have contributed significantly to astrophysics. The twin Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea, Hawaii copyright: Debatably, they were the joint-largest telescopes in the world for 16 years, and were a massive step forward in astronomy when completed in , the largest telescope in the world was only 6 meters.

In fact, the current champion of largest optical telescope in the world only beats the Keck telescopes by 40cm. The GTC is the largest optical telescope in the world, with a whopping diameter of Strictly speaking, this telescope is still being commissioned, as many science instruments still have to be finished and attached to the telescope. But the LBT is special. This makes the LBT the largest telescope on a single mount in the world.

And also allows for something amazing. By doing this, the LBT can act like a telescope with a diameter of Heyer CC BY 4. The Very Large Telescope is not the largest telescope in the world. It is, in all sense of the word, the underdog of telescopes in this day and age.

Yet, the potential of this telescope rocks it to the top of this list. The VLT has fixed units housing the four 8. It was great to receive tips from David Gross discovery of asymptotic freedom, on being creative: Although not surprising, did you know who his favorite Nobel Laureate is? His description of a good day: One of the most shocking things I learned at the meeting was that we burn of ATP daily, pretty rad, right? Wieman first BEC, And did you know that George F.

Smoot discovery of black body form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation, appeared on the TV series the Big Bang Theory? We discussed how the metrics h-index, etc in Science are needed and dangerous. Oh, and not to get frustrated if you are initiating a field: Schmidt evidence of accelerated expansion of the Universe, One of the big tasks for science is to improve teaching and education in physics.

Some books recommendations by Carl E. In the last the discussion of the meeting there were 4 conclusions about improving education in science: LiNo16 last day took place on Mainau Island.

Apparently, butterflies like science, too. The social aspect was amazing. I got to meet so many different and unique minds. Ramaswamy had just talked to a TV channel about his recent research breakthrough. As we settle down for the interview, another reporter from a global news service calls to make an appointment for an interview.

Commonly found in the landscapes of Hawaii, the Pacific beetle cockroach Diploptera punctata is the only known species of viviparous cockroach. This means that it gives birth to living young, not eggs, and the offspring are nourished by the mother in her brood sac. Stay had seen these crystals before. Crystals in the gut, when observed, are assumed to be crystals of urea or waste products that crystallise very readily.

Coussens, however, had a hunch that these might be different. He took them to Ramaswamy, then a professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Iowa, who studied crystal structures. It is actually nontrivial to get crystals grown in vivo inside a living organism.

When nothing is known about the structure of a protein, researchers resort to a nifty trick, one of the oldest in the book, which makes it possible to effectively use x-ray crystallography and solve the structure. One or more heavy atoms are introduced into specific sites in the crystal without disturbing its perfect repeating pattern. But the researchers were unable to incorporate heavy atoms in these crystals.

Efforts at preparing the protein crystals for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR , a different technique for structure determination, also failed.

They even wrote a proposal to NASA, who were conducting experiments to see if protein crystals could be grown better in space, to send the cockroaches to space. However, in early , Leonard Chavas, a scientist who had learnt about the project from Ramaswamy, was eager to initiate it again. However, sulphur is already present in most, if not all, proteins known so far. So if you are able to find a way to get a good signal from the sulphur, then you can use it as a pseudo heavy atom that helps you to solve the structure.

The packing or arrangement of the molecules in the crystal was, in crystallographer speak, space group P1. They learnt that the crystals were unusual in many ways. These crystals were not made up of one protein, but three—they are heterogeneous, not homogeneous. This was so surprising that the researchers had to double-check their results using a second technique called mass spectrometry.

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Currently, about 90 drugs are being tested against AD in clinical trials in the US alone, and as of , there were open clinical trials under way.

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